CCTV is the abbreviation for Closed-Circuit Television – it is generally used for video surveillance in various corporate setups. A CCTV camera captures the whole view that falls into its range limit and broadcasts it to a specific number of monitors for security purposes.
The main purpose of these cameras is to detect criminal and theft activities and capture traffic infractions. However, sometimes it is used for other purposes as well such as tracking employees’ performance, monitoring interviews, or simply viewing your office from a distance, etc.
Although it has a strong history that stretches back to 1942, it has become more common in the last few decades – all thanks to the ever-growing crime rate around the world. CCTV technology was first developed by German scientists to provide surveillance of their V2 rocket launch. Later on, it ended up being used by several American scientists to carry out the testing of the atomic bomb.
Now that you’ve gotten a clear idea about what is a CCTV camera, it’s time for us to find out how it works. For your convenience, here we have come up with a detailed overview of the high-end mechanism behind CCTV cameras, and their software.
So, let’s dive in!
How Do CCTV Cameras Work?
CCTV consists of important video capturing components such as a high-quality lens, at least one camera, recorder, etc. Depending on its range limit, the CCTV coverage can be scaled up or down for surveillance.
Its high-end software allows the CCTV to capture a constant sequence of images, which is then sent to the recording devices or display monitors wirelessly, or via cables. It allows the users to view the image sequence as proper video footage. Depending on the camera quality and model, sometimes CCTV cameras also have the ability to zoom in and out and rotate to 360 degrees.
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The CCTV camera tech works through two basic components – video encoders, and image sensors. Let’s find out how they function.
A video encoder enables the transfer of an analog CCTV camera system to various other networks. Its high-end tech supports wired connections and also helps to digitalize the video signals so that they can be sent to wireless/wired IP-based systems. In simpler words, CCTV video encoders convert digital or analog video to a compatible format for instant deliverance to a decoder.
Although we have tried to cover all the major points related to CCTV video encoders in this article, if you still wish to know more about it, then don’t forget to check out some reliable tech-related blogs or websites on the internet.
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CCTV cameras consist of a wide range of image sensors that work through the conversion of light rays into electronic camera signals. It features several pixels or photodiodes, which process the captured light, and transforms it into electrons. Currently, CCTV cameras have the two most commonly used formats of image sensors – CCD and CMOS.
- CCD – Charged Coupled Device
CCD sensors are comparatively costlier than CMOS due to their high power consumption. These are an ideal fit for unstable light conditions, as they have less noise than CMOS, and also feature higher light sensitivity. While its signal is analog, it is transformed by an analog converter for transmission – it allows the CCD to convert the pixel values into numeric values effectively.
- CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
A CMOS sensor is much more cost-effective than a CCD sensor. It is an electronic chip that turns photons into electrons for digital processing. The main purpose of these sensors is to form images in various types of cameras like digital video cameras and CCTV cameras, etc.
Surprisingly, most modern CCTV cameras are compatible with various internet-enabled devices such as smartphones, tabs, laptops, etc. So, you can easily view your CCTV camera range from a distance, if your CCTV is connected to the internet. However, the only key here is to connect your device and CCTV camera to a high-speed internet connection so that you can enjoy a lag-free view on your phone/laptop.
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Types of CCTV systems
- Analog– Analog CCTV cameras rely on Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC) connectors to transmit uninterrupted video signals round the clock. Although analog CCTV cameras are comparatively a bit low resolution, still pretty effective for corporate setups, as they consist of more peripherals than other CCTV cameras. The best part is that its signals can be digitized, which makes it even more cost-effective to go virtual with even older equipment.
- Network or IP– Network or IP cameras work hand-in-hand with analog and digital CCTV cameras. Its high-end system utilizes video servers to stream recordings over the internet. It offers a wide range of benefits like Wi-Fi and audio compatibility, remote access, Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) for image analysis, Power Over Ethernet (POE), and much more. Besides this, IP CCTV cameras are also capable to support multiple cameras at once which makes them an absolute hit for corporate organizations.
- Digital– Just as the name says, a digital CCTV camera works by digitalizing the signals. It does not require any type of video capture card as its images are saved directly to the computer. Although it captures pretty clear, and high-resolution images, still it has a minor drawback – it requires a comparatively larger amount of space to store recordings, as it compresses them later.
We hope you enjoyed reading about the functionality and high-end mechanism of CCTV cameras. If you wish to know about its other features, pros, cons, or specifications, then don’t forget to visit your favorite tech-related websites, blogs, and articles on the internet.
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